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If there is any one thing more than another of which the people of the Northern States have reason to be proud, it is of the record they made during the dark and bloody days of the War of the Rebellion. When the war was forced upon the country, the people were quietly pursuing the even tenor of their ways, doing whatever their hand found to do-making farms or cultivating those already made, erecting homes, founding cities and towns, building shops and manufactories-in short, the country was alive with industry and hopes for the future. The people were just recovering from the depressions and losses incident to the financial panic of 1857. The future looked bright and promising, and the industrious and patriotic sons and daughters of the Free States were buoyant with hope-looking forward to the perfecting of new plans for the ensurement of comfort and competence in their declining years, they little heeded the mutterings and threatenings of treason's children in the Slave States of the South. True sons and descendants of the heroes of the "times that tried men's soul's"-the struggle for American independence-they never dreamed that there was even one so base as to dare attempt the destruction of the Union of their fathers-a government baptized with the best blood the world ever knew. While immediately surrounded with peace and tranquility, they paid but little attention to the rumored plots and plans of those who lived and grew rich from the sweat and toil, blood and flesh of others-aye, even trafficked in the offspring of their own loins. Nevertheless, the war came, with all its attendant horrors.
April 12, 1861, Fort Sumter, at Charleston, South Carolina, Major Anderson, U.S.A., commandant, was fired upon by rebels in arms. Although basest treason, this first act in the bloody reality that followed, was looked upon as the mere bravado of a few hot-heads-the act of a few fire eaters whose sectional bias and freedom hatred was crazed by excessive indulgence in intoxication potations. When, a day later, the news was borne along the telegraphic wires that Major Anderson had been forced to surrender to what had at first been regarded as a drunken mob, the patriotic people of the North were startled from the dreams of the future-from undertakings half completed-and made to realize that behind that mob there was a dark, deep and well organized purpose to destroy the government, rend the Union in twain, and out of its ruins erect a slave oligarchy, wherein no one would dare question their right to hold in bondage the sons and daughters of men whose skins were black, or who, perchance, through practices of lustful natures were half or quarter removed from the color that God, for His own purposes, had given them. But they "reckoned without their host." Their dreams of the future-their plans for the establishment of an independent confederacy-were doomed from their inception to sad and bitter disappointment.

Immediately upon the surrender of Fort Sumter, Abraham Lincoln-America's martyr president-who, but a few short weeks before, had taken the oath of office as the nation's chief executive, issued a proclamation calling for 75,000 volunteers for three months. The last word of that proclamation had scarcely been taken from the electric wires, before the call was filled. Men and money were counted out by hundreds and thousands. The people who loved their whole government could not give enough. Patriotism thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, the school house-every calling offered its best men, their lives and their fortunes in defense of the government's honor and unity. Party lines were for the time, ignored. Bitter words, spoken in moments of political heat, were forgotten and forgiven, and, joining hands in a common cause, they repeated the oath of America's soldier statesman-"By the Great Eternal, the Union must and shall be preserved!"

Seventy-five thousand men were not enough to subdue the rebellion. Nor were ten times that number. The war went one, and call followed call, until it began to look as if there would not be men enough in all the Free States to crush out and subdue the monstrous war traitors had inaugurated. But to every call, for either men or money, there was a willing and a ready response. And it is a boast of the people that, had the supply of men fallen short, there were wpmen brave enough, daring enough, patriotic enough, to have offered themselves as sacrifices on their country's altar. Such were the impulses, motives, and actions of the patriotic men of the North, among whom the sons of Carroll, made a conspicuous and praise-worthy record. Of the offerings made by this people during the great and final struggle between freedom and slavery, it is the purpose now to write.

April 14, A. D. 1861, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, issued the following:

Whereas, The laws of the United states have been, and now are, violently opposed in several states by combinations too powerful to be suppressed in the ordinary way, I therefore call for the militia of the several states of the Union, to the aggregate number of 75,000, to suppress said combination and execute the laws. I appeal to all loyal citizens to facilitate and aid in this effort to maintain the laws and the integrity of the perpetuity of the popular government, and redress wrongs long enough endured. The first service assigned to the forces, probably, will be to repossess the fort, places and property which have been seized from the Union. Let the utmost care be taken, consistent with the object, to avoid devastation, destruction, interference with the property of peaceful citizens in any part of the county: and I hereby command persons composing the aforesaid combination to disperse within twenty days from date.
I hereby convene both houses of Congress for the 4th day of July next, to determine upon measures for public safety which the interest of the subject demand.
Wm. H. Seward, President of the United States.
Secretary of State.

The gauntlet thrown down by the traitors in the South was accepted-not, however, in the spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of the president was plain under the constitution and the laws, and above and beyond all, the people from whom all political power is derived demanded the suppression of the rebellion, and stood ready to sustain the authority of their representatives and executive officers.
The first war meeting held in Carroll County convened at the old court house on Wednesday evening, April 17, 1861, for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of organizing a military company to act in conjunction with other companies for the defense of a common country. T. T. Jacobs was chosen as president of that meeting, and S. C. Hays was appointed to act as secretary. Volney Armour stated the object of the meeting, when stirring speeches were made by J. P. Seedy and Hon. B. L. Paten.
V. Armour, B. L. Patch, A. Nase, Samuel Preston, of Mount Carroll, and Monroe Bailey, of York, were appointed to prepare a series of resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting, and during their absence, short and enthusiastic speeches were made by Messrs. Hays, Colehower, Chapman and others. After an hour's absence, the committee returned and reported the following, which were unanimously adopted:

Whereas, The people of several states of the Union are in open and armed rebellion against the Government of the United States, and have, without any reasonable excuse or any invasion of their rights by the general government, seized the forts, arsenals, and property of the government, and to crown their outrageous acts, have actually levied war upon the government, by their late attack on and forcible occupation of Fort Sumter; therefore, be it
Resolved. 1. That we, the citizens of Mount Carroll and vicinity, without distinction of party, hereby declare our unalterable attachment to the Union and Constitution as it is, and that we will stand by the stars and stripes, and support the administration in its measures to vindicate the rightful authority of the government in suppressing treason and enforcing the laws in all the states.
2. That we deem it our duty to organize a military company in this county, to meet any call that may be made by the government of the state, for the purpose of supporting the general government in the present emergency.
Volney Armour was then, appointed as recruiting officer, when the meeting adjourned to meet again on Saturday evening, the 20th.


Pursuant to adjournment, the meeting re-assembled in the new court house, for the purpose of commencing the organization of a volunteer company to be tendered to the governor of the state. Judge Wilson presided at this meeting, and J. P. Emmert acted as secretary. Upon taking the chair, Judge Wilson electrified the audience with a manly and partriotic speech, which was frequently interrupted with hear-swelling cheers. Judge Wilson was followed by Hon. W. T. Miller, Dr. B. L. Miller, H. A. Mills, C. B. Smith, Henry Ashway, James Shaw, V. Armour, N. Halderman, William T. Frohock, and others, with warm and patriotic speeches, which were heartily cheered.
Mr. Armour presented a roll for the signatures of volunteers, and the work commenced. While the roll was being signed, a delegation from York township, headed by a martial band, entered the court house and were greeted with wildest applause. As soon as quiet was restored, Monroe Bailey, the chairman of the delegation, announced "that York Township was all on fire for the cause of their country-that nine of her sons had already enrolled themselves, and that at least as many more would before the Carroll County company was filled." This announcement created an enthusiasm that could not be restrained, and cheer after cheer greeted Mr. Bailey as he resumed his seat. The York boys were also greeted with hearty shouts as they filed forward to enroll their names.
During the reception of the names of volunteers, the following agreement was presented for signatures, which was promptly and unhesitatingly signed by a large number of prominent citizens:

We, the undersigned citizens of Carroll County, Illinois, do hereby agree to support, maintain and protect the families of all persons who may volunteer from our county for the defense of the honor and perpetuity of our beloved government, so long as said volunteers shall be engaged in such defense. For the performance of this agreement we pledge our sacred honor.

A subscription was then started for the purpose of raising money to defray the contingent expenses of the volunteers while completing their organization, and two hundred and fifty dollars were subscribed before the meeting adjourned.
Thus was awakened the war spirit in Carroll, and thus it continued till the war was ended.
Wednesday, April 24, the Carroll County Weekly Mirror, Messrs. I. V. Hollinger and A. Windle, publishers; James Shaw, Esq., editor, sounded the key note to the war feeling in Carroll County, in the following editorial:


The whole country is in a flame of excitement; the fires of patriotism are being lighted in millions of Northern hearts; while the dark fires of a hellish and infernal fanaticism are crazing the Southern mind. Sumter has fallen-the flag of our glorious country is trailed in the dust.-spurned, spit upon, insulted by Southern mutineers. Arsenals and forts are taken by storm. Northern men are insulted, endangered, slain for no crime. The rebels are marching upon Washington. There is danger that the capital of our country will fall into their vandal hands. Virginia has seceded. Gov. Hicks, of Maryland, has proved a traitor. The bridges are broken down; the railroad track is torn up; everything is being done to hold back the forces of the Union, until Washington shall fall into the hands of those marching upon it.
Men of the great North, of the might West, must these things be? Are we to tamely sit in inactivity until the whole
country shall be overrun with a military unsurpation? Is the nigger-driver to possess our government, make our laws, reduce us to bondage?
Millions will answer-No! by the everlasting God, No! Next to our firesides and hearthstones, the City of
Washington is dear to the loyal American heart.
Let the old fires of the Revolution once again be lighted. Let patriotism and self-sacrificing devotion to our country warm every heart, and lead to promptness in action. Let all who can, volunteer. Let all who can not do this, give their prayers, their means, their sympathies, to the holy cause of freedom. Silence traitors and stories at home; stop the Southern boats on the upper Mississippi River. Keep our lead at home, until we give it to them in the shape of bullets; keep our iron until we can send it in the shape of swords, rifles, and cannon. Keep our provisions until they go to our armies in the South. Proclaim liberty to the slave everywhere. Let the power of the nation be summoned to crush out the rebellion just inaugurated. Let those be honored who assist in fighting their country's battles
We hope "Little Carroll" will burnish a hundred good men as her first installment; and when others are needed, let them be ready.

Other were needed, and they were ready.
The First Company.-In the Mirror of May 1, 23 find the following" "Our large new court house is turned into barracks for the Carroll County volunteers now awaiting the Governor's orders to go to Springfield, or any other point. The company is under the command of Captain Nase. The boys are exceedingly anxious to be off. They are a fine-looking company, and will fight like tigers and bull-dogs. Woe to the equal number of rebels that fall into their hands.
Below is a list of the names of the officers;
"Captain, Adam Nase; first lieutenant, R. J. Heath; second lieutenant, James O'Brien; first orderly sergeant, John W. Puterbaugh; second orderly sergeant, P. D. Kenyon; third orderly sergeant, James A. Shaffer; fourth orderly sergeant, Charles W. Wilcox; first corporal, George Kridler; fourth corporal, Henry McCall, Jr."" Then follow the names of ninety-four of the sons of Carroll who were ready to march to the field of danger, courage and strife--all of whose names will be found in another place.
While the men were busy polling up this company, the ladies of Mount Carroll were not idle, but their deft fingers had fashioned a handsome flag, which, on Monday evening, April 29, was presented to the company, with proper ceremony, at the court house. Rev. O. D. W. White represented the ladies, and on their behalf made a very appropriate presentation speech. Dr. Miller received the flag for the company, and responded to Mr. White's remarks in fitting terms, when Captain Nase, whose modesty had kept him in the background was called out, and "made an excellent, solid, short, impromptu speech. Other of the volunteers also pledged themselves and comrades to stand by, defend and return the flag to the fair hands from which they received it."
This company could not be received at once, in consequence of the quota of the six regiments assigned to Illinois being so quickly filled, and on Saturday, the 4th of May, were dismissed for the time, but ordered to hold themselves in readiness to be summoned at any time. The boys were disappointed, but their turn came ere long. Before a week had passed, Captain Nase received orders to march his company to Freeport, and go into camp as a part of a regiment for this congressional district. The evening before their departure, they assembled in the court house, where they were feelingly addressed by Rev. C. M. Woodward and John Irvin, Sr. Early on Saturday morning, the 11th, the boys marched away, escorted to the outskirts of the town by the Carroll Cornet Band and a large number of citizens of both sexes.
This company was raised under the call for volunteers for three months, but, as before stated, the quota of Illinois was filled before the company was ready. When it reached camp at Freeport, the alternative of being mustered into service for three years or during the war, or of being dismissed, was presented. The choice was with the men, and they nearly unanimously accepted the situation, and were sworn in accordingly. The informal election of officers, held before the company left Mount Carroll, was confirmed and the duty of camp life on the tented field commenced in good earnest. Shortly after, the company was ordered to Alton, whither it was soon followed with a uniform provided by the people from whose midst the men composing its rank and file had been raised.
May 14, the board of supervisors elected for 1861-H. Smith, L. Hefflefinger, J. J. Eacker, Samuel Sheller, A. Moffett, J. F. Chapman, John Hillman, E. Hathaway, D. W. Dame, and D. L. Bowen-met for the transaction of business. After the examination of their certificates of election, as shown by their journal entries, the following resolution was offered and passed unanimously-all the supervisors voting aye"

Resolved, That the sum of five thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be sufficient, be appropriated for the purpose of uniforming and equipping the volunteers from this county who have, or who may hereafter enlist in the service of the state or of the United States, and supporting the families of the same, as may be necessary from time to time.
Resolved, That the said sum be raised by special tax on all the taxable property of the county; and, further, be it
Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed, with power to draw orders through the clerk on the treasury, to be paid out of the funds arising from such special tax, in such amounts as, in their discretion, the same may be needed to carry out the object of the foregoing resolution.

Supervisors Chapman, Hefflefinger, Bowen, Moffett and Hillman were appointed as the committee provided for in the last resolution above quoted. This committee appointed, a sub-committee, consisting of Messrs Chapman and Hefflefinger, to negotiate the orders thus provided for, and superintend the purchase of a uniform for Captain Nase's company. Captain Nase was advised by Mr. Chapman of the action taken by the county, and that the sub-committee would visit Chicago to carry out the object expressed in the first resolution-to procure a uniform for his company, and that they wished him to have the measure of every man of his company taken by time they reached Freeport on their way to Chicago, naming the day when they would stop at the camp to receive the list. Arrived there, Captain Nase expressed a desire to accompany Messrs. Chapman and Hefflefinger on their mission, and was made an honorary member of their committee, but defraying his own expenses. The dealers in Chicago did not have much faith in the credit and honor of the Carroll County
Taxpayers, and declined to accept the orders in exchange for their goods at any price. They did not seem to regard them as worth ten cents on the dollar. Mr. Chapman then sought the agency of Mr. H. Ashway, and tried to sell the orders to Mr. James Marks. At that immediate time that gentleman was not prepared to cash them, but agreed to do so in two months, when he should dispose of a lot of cattle he was fattening for market. As soon as these were sold he would take the orders at a discount of twenty-five per cent. Receiving this assurance, Mr. Chapman, who was then in the mercantile business, returned to Chicago, and, on his individual faith and credit, contracted with a house of which he bought goods for a sufficient quantity of cloth and its manufacture into uniform suits, which cost $1,200-the net amount of cash realized from an issue of $1.600 in county orders, at a discount of twenty-five per cent. Two months later, when Mr. Marks shipped his cattle to Chicago, Mr. Chapman met him there, turned over the county orders, received the money, and paid the debt he had contracted to uniform the first company sent out from Carroll County to help defend the life and maintain the perpetuity of the government. The uniforms were forwarded to Captain Nase at Alton, where the boys were dressed out in blue. From there they went wherever the fortunes of war directed.
In this connection it is but an act of justice to remark that to Mr. J. F. Chapman, a true patriot and an honest man-the noblest work of God-belongs the credit of uniforming the first company. It is true the faith of the county was at his back, but that could not be made immediately available, and but for his energy, tact and credit among the business men and wholesale dealers in Chicago, the uniforming of Captain Nase's company would have been much longer delayed. While the war lasted-or, at least, for a large part of the time-the county looked after the interests of the soldiers' families, as the people had pledged themselves to do at the first war meeting. Mr. Chapman was the trusted and faithful agent for the distribution of money and supplies, as they were needed, and not a dollar of the means thus entrusted to him failed to find its way to those for whom it had been provided. And many is the mother and soldier's child that has occasion to remember with grateful heart his honor and goodness. Mr. Chapman was succeeded in this duty by Mr. O. S. Beardsley, another patriot and honest citizen, whose record is without blemish.
The war went on and recruiting continued. A second company was soon after raised, which met at the court house on Saturday evening, May 19, and proceeded to the election of officers. Abram Beeler was elected captain; S. S. Dunn, first lieutenant; James Watson, second lieutenant; J. P. Beebe, first sergeant; and D. W. Price, second sergeant. This company was christened the "Hickory Rifle Guards." While there was a hand raised against the government, the people of Carroll were alive and active. Men, women and children were busy-the men in the more arduous duties of recruiting and providing "ways and means" for equipping the volunteers and sending them forward, and the women and children in providing and shipping to the "Boys in Blue" a thousand and one things that carried gladness and joy to hundred of tents.
The first appropriation made by the board of supervisors was in the sum of $5,000, a part of which was used for the purpose of uniforming Captain Nase's company. The balance was applied to similar purposes and for the support of such of the families of the volunteers as might need for the support of such of the families of the volunteers as might need assistance. No one then imagined that the war would be of long duration, or that instead of $5,000, millions would be needed before the rebellion conquered. And so it came, as the war was prolonged, call after call was made for men. As these men enlisted, money was needed for their equipment, for the payment of bounties, the support and maintenance of wives and families; but there was no stinginess attending. Appropriation followed appropriation from public sources. Thousands were multiplied by tens and twenties. Tax was added to tax, but the people bowed willingly to the increased burdens. Never were taxes more willingly paid. About their payment there was no grumbling, for the life of the nation was at stake. Now, in times of peace, when the people have time to think, the large amount of money contributed by them from township and county sources seems almost wonderful. But few have even an approximate idea of the immense sums they helped to pay. Nothing can be presented in letter and figures fuller of interest than the actual sums thus provided.
The following is a statement of the money expended by Carroll County during the War of the Rebellion:

Disbursed as county bounty $131,525 00
Disbursed for support of families of soldiers, by J. F. Chapman. 16,835 00
Disbursed for uniforms for volunteers by " " " 1,600 00
Disbursed for support of families of soldiers by O. S. Beardsley 23,975 00
Total $162,935 00

Of the fourteen townships in the county, Mount Carroll is the only one included in the above statement, it being the township in which the city of Mount Carroll is located. The township authorities were equally liberal, and to their several clerks we are indebted for the following statement, as we are indebted to Thomas D. Davis, Deputy county clerk, for the above statement.
Besides the county appropriations, each of the outside townships were equally liberal and patriotic. So far as it has been possible to obtain these several amounts, they are respectively as follows:
Rock Creek $16,031 79
Fair Haven 11,691 29
{Private subscriptions to pay volunteers $3,528 00
Savanna {Town tax 3,500 00----------- 7,288 00
Elkhorn Grove 3,500 00
Woodland 7,000 00
Salem 7,086 00
Lima 2,000 00
{Principal $53,800 00
York {Interest on same 15,326 00---------- 69,326 00
$123,923 08

These are only eight of the fourteen townships, not including Mount Carroll. Efforts were made to secure the amounts paid by the other townships-Shannon, Washington, Freedom, Cherry Grove and Wysox-but our postal cards either went amiss, or the townships clerks did not answer, or, if they did answer, their answers failed to reach us. We would like to present the exact figures, but can not for want of the proper data. The above sum of $123,923.08, added to the county appropriation heretofore quoted, and making a liberal and fair estimate for the five townships not heard from, would swell the grand total to very nearly $325,000, contributed by this people to aid in the suppression of the war of the rebellion.
Besides these public appropriations, individual citizens contributed and paid large sums toward the payment of bounties to avoid the humiliation of a draft, and to help the needy families of those who had gone out with their lives in their hands. The actual amounts of these contributions can not possibly be known, but it is safe to assume that they were equal to one fourth of the county and township appropriations, which would swell the grand total to the enormous sum of $406,250!
In concluding this section of the History of Carroll County, what more fitting tribute can be paid-what greater halo of glory case about their deeds of valor than a full and complete War Record, embracing the names, the terms of enlistments, the battles in which they engaged, and all the minutes of their lives? It will be a wreath of glory encircling every brow, and a memento which each and every one of them earned in defense of their country's honor, integrity and unity.

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